Rhododendron – 2000 VOL.III No.IV JULY-AUGUST 2000

Rhododendron News

























(Rev. Dr. Chum Awi)




1. ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM AND RENEWABLE ENERGY IN CHIN STATE (provided by Chin Research and Development Society)








On June 26, 2000, Chin Human Rights Organization’s (CHRO) field monitor Mr. Zothang and two other villagers, Pu Zadun (32 years old ) and Mr. Siamhmingthang (24 years old) of Bungkhua village, Thantlang township, Chin State were killed by Burmese soldiers from Light Infantry Battlalion LIB 266 of Lungler army camp.


According to the traders, the incident took place around 10 AM local time.


The Burmese army came to the village and surrounded the house while Mr. Zothang of CHRO was talking with the villagers. Mr. Zothang tried to escape as soon as he saw the army, but he faltered and was captured by the army.


He was shot dead near a bush shortly after they arrested him. After that the two villagers Pu Zadun and Mr. Siamhmingthang were arrested and shot dead in the same place.


CHRO was formed in 1995 by a group of Chin activists to document human rights violations committed by the Burmese military junta in Chin State and the North Western part of Burma.


This is the second time that a CHRO member was killed by SPDC while collecting information in the field. In April 1998 Salai Michael Enzapau, Secretary of CHRO was killed near the India-Burma border village of Parva.



A 29-year old Chin woman farmer named Pi Sai Sung, was arrested by a group of Burmese soldiers led by Captain San Lwin from Light Infantry Battalion 266 on June 26, 2000 in Bungkhua village of Chin State. She was accused of having a relationship with CHRO field monitor Mr. Zothang who was killed by the Burmese soldiers on the same day.


She was taken (on foot) to Thantlang town which is 28 miles away from Bungkhua village. According to the villagers, the soldiers covered her mouth with rags and forced her to walk the whole way wearing only her bra and underwear.


Meanwhile Pi Sai Sung’s husband continues to be detained by the SPDC authorities in Kalaymyo jail. He was accused of supporting the Chin National Front (CNF) and arrested in July 1999.


Their two children, an 11-year old daughter and a 5-year old son are being looked after by villagers.


Mr. Zothang was arrested and killed on the spot, along with two villagers Pu Zadun 32 and Mr. Siamhmingthang 24, while he was taking a rest and chatting with the villagers at Pi Sai Sung’s house.


SPDC soldiers buried the dead bodies of the victims and planted landmines near their graves. The villagers appealed to the soldiers and finally got permission to take the dead bodies of Pu Zadun and Mr. Siamhmingthang and rebury them at the village cemetery. But the Burmese soldiers refused to clear the landmines they planted at the grave of Mr. Zothang of CHRO.


In addition, Capt. San Lwin and his troops stole Kyats 24,000/- from Pu Mang Hlun and a tape recorder from Pu Chan Hre of Bungkhua village.



On 12 June 2000, the CHRO received a report from a reliable source that the Burmese military junta, the State Peace and Development Council, issued an order to demolish the United Pentecostal Church located on Cherry Street in downtown in Haka, the capital of Chin State.


In addition, a church pastor Rev. Tin Hei has been placed on trial in a Chin State court. The report was confirmed by a Rangoon pastor from the same denomination who is now studying in the United States. The pastor said that the people spent a good deal of money to obtain permission from the authorities to build the church, which they constructed only after they received permission from the Ministry of Religion. The church building was completed in 1999.


In January 1999, six pastors including a woman minister were arrested for erecting a cross on their mountain top in the town of Thantlang, 20 miles from Haka. In addition, in July 1999, two pastors from the town of Thantlang were arrested for conducting a Church council meeting without the army’s permission.


On 9 September 1999, the United States’ Department of State, in accordance with the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998, released its first Annual Report on Religious Freedom. The report provides accurate documentation of the Burmese Army’s systematic violation of religious freedom in Burma. The United States’ State Department has designated Burma, along with China, Iran, Iraq, and Sudan, as one of five countries of particular concern for violations of religious freedom.


Over 90 percent of Chins are Christians and religious persecution is a major concern in Chin State.


Background Information:


The Burmese military regime continues persecution of Chin Christians and the killing of innocent Chin villagers in Chin State in the Union of Burma. On June 13, 2000, Chin State authorities of the SPDC in Haka, the capital of Chin State, summoned Rev. Tin Hei, a pastor of the United Pentecostal Church (UPC) and ordered him to discontinue the construction of the UPC building on Cherry Street.


The building is comprised of three floors, one for the church, the other for the Haka UPC District office, and the third for the pastor’s quarters. When a Students Festival was held in Haka on April 25-28, 1998, Chin Christians were forced to construct the bleachers and seats so that SPDC leaders could watch the games in comfort. Chin villagers were forced to manually gather hardwood from the forest to construct the seats.


At the conclusion of the games, the officials sold the hardwood and kept the profit. The UPC Church bought some of the wood from the SPDC to build its building. Since the construction of “church buildings” is not permitted under SPDC regulations, a church has to be built as part of a larger building. But the construction of a Buddhist temple does not require permission from the SPDC.


The UPC met all the SPDC’s requirements for the construction of the building and had received permission from the SPDC to proceed. Work on the building began in early 1999 and was nearly complete when the order to discontinue was issued. The SPDC ordered the construction to stop for two years even though the UPC had prior permission to complete the building.


The SPDC did not give any specific reasons why they stopped the construction. Similarly, on June 29, the SPDC officials in Kalemyo ordered the Agape Church of the Assembly of God in Pinlong Ward, Kalemyo in Sagaing Division to stop the construction of their church building.


The church pastor, Rev. Go Za Nang, had obtained prior permission from the military authorities. The order was given without explanation.




Hundreds of Refugees from Burma arrested in Aizawl, India

July 30, 2000



Hundreds of refugees from Burma were arrested by police in the town of Aizawl, the capital of Mizoram State in India. These arrests are part of a major on-going crackdown against refugees and illegal immigrants from Burma by Mizoram authorities.


Some of those arrested have been sent to the Central Jail because all the lockups in the town are full of refugees from Burma. A source from Mizoram police force said that all those who are arrested will be deported back to the India/Burma border.


Mr. U Than Sein, Member of Parliament elect from National League for Democracy party was among those who were arrested in Aizawl on July 28. He was released the following day.


Rampant human rights violations committed by the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC ), Burma’s ruling military regime along with economic hardships in the country forced people from the Union of Burma to seek refuge in the neighbouring State of Mizoram, India.


According to the Chin Relief and Development Committee, there are about 50 thousand refugees from the Union of Burma living in Mizoram State. Most of the refugees are Chins.



On Friday evening, July 28, 2000, Mizoram State authorities began arresting Chin and other refugees from Burma in Aizawl, the capital of the Indian state. The arrests and deportations have continued through to mid-August and still continue as this bulletin goes to print.


The number of arrests has not been released by the police but is now estimated at several hundred. Over a hundred refugees have already been deported to the border by Aizawl authorities. The fate of those deportees is currently unknown.


According to this year’s Report of the U.S Committee for Refugees, “World Refugee Survey”, there are about 40,000 Chin refugees residing in the state of Mizoram. Because Mizoram State is situated in Northeast India and shares a border with Burma’s Chin State, many Chin (from Chin State) and other Burmese refugees (from the Sagaing Division and Arakan State) fled there to seek refuge from human rights abuses and economic hardship.


The people who have been arrested are being detained in Aizawl’s five police stations: Babutlang (which accommodates up to 60 people), Bawngkawn Police Station (which accommodates up to 20 people), Vaiva Kawn Police Outpost (which accommodates up to 15 people), Kulikawn Police Outpost (which accommodates up to 15 people), and Luangmual Police Outpost (which accomodates up to 15 people).


As the number of arrests increases, the amount of space in the lock-ups is running out. Therefore, many of the arrestees are being sent to the Central Jail in Tanhril, which is in the Aizawl town area and accommodates about 1000 people.


There are reports that these refugees are neither allowed to take their belongings nor to see their relatives. According to local sources in Aizawl, those who are being held in these five police stations and the Central Jail will appear before the first class rank of the magistrate at the Deputy Commissioner’s office of the Aizawl District to have their fates determined.


According to this district court’s procedures, the refugees will probably be face one of the following two scenarios: They will either be deported to the Camphai/Rih Khawdar area of the India-Burma border. When the refugees are handed over to the military authorities in Rih Khawdar, they will “likely” be sent to jail or labour camp.


The second possible scenario is that Aizawl authorities may charge them with illegal entry to India, detain them in the Central jail in Tanhril for between six months and one year, and then deport them to Burma.


Currently, Aizawl police continue to arrest Chin and other Burmese refugees in the streets and the work place and many of them are in hiding. This crackdown on refugees from Burma may be related to agreements that were reached this year in January/February meetings between high-level Indian and Burmese military generals. The aim of the meetings was to improve cooperation regarding border trade.




August 6, 2000


In the midst of the mass arrests and deportations of Chin refugees in Mizoram State, a 25 year old Chin refugee, Mr. Lalrinchana, died in the lock-up of the Aizawl central police station on August 3, 2000. Mr. Lalrinchana was the son of Mr. Pa Hmunga of Leilet village, Falam township, Chin State, Burma.


He was first arrested and tortured by the Village Defense People VDP of Electric Ward, Aizawl, who then handed him over to the Mizoram Police.


He was accused of using illegal drugs. The dead body of Mr. Lalrinchana was taken to the hospital. Since no one claimed his body, Chhinga ward’s Young Mizo Association (YMA) buried him on August 6, 2000. The YMA confirmed that the death of Mr. Lalrianchana was due to torture.


Since the last week of July, Indian Police have been arresting Chin and Burmese refugees in the area of Aizawl, the capital of Mizoram State, India. According to Mr. Tawnluaia, Home Minister of Mizoram State, the police will continue the arrest and deport refugees until every refugee from Burma is deported.


Several hundreds of refugees from Burma in Aizawl area were arrested and the arrests are still continuing as this bulletin goes to print. 194 refugees have already been deported to the Indo-Burma border.


HNEHTU newspaper (India): Jail condition in Mizoram State


Dated 3 August 2000


There are 1,326 prisoners in all Mizoram jails. Central Jail is very congested now with the Burmese being arrested in the state. Only 400 to 500 prisoners are used to put in the Central Jail but from 3rd August the jail has become congested and total 846 prisoners were there in the central jail.


In Champhai jail, there are now 56, jail of Saiha in southern Mizoram 68 and Kollasib jail is with 79 prisoners. There are total 200 prisoners in Lunglei jail. The reason why jails in Mizoram became crowded is the arrest of Burmese from different parts by the police in the state.


A news report from MIZO ARSI (star) newspaper, Aizawl,

Dated 7th August, 2000

Overdosed person died in lock-up


On 7th August 2000, a Chin, namely Lalrinchhana, who says himself from being Tuikual C of Aizawl, died in lock-up due to overdose. His body was taken away by his maternal Uncle T.C Vungana who lives in Chhiga Veng of Aizawl.




New Delhi,

August 14, 2000

Hundreds of Burma refugees in New Delhi face the possible starvation and homeless as the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in New Delhi cannot pay the monthly allowance for this month. The UNHCR, which has been providing the amount of Indian Rupee 1,550 per month per person to its refugees in India, could not make the payment in the first week of August as it used to make. It is now in the half of the month and seems that UNHCR would not be able to pay the allowance in the coming days either. When contacted to the UNHCR office in Delhi, some refugees are informed that it might not be possible to make payment till 20th of this month.


The UNHCR Office in Delhi cited the reason as “the serious financial constraints that UNHCR is facing globally”. Apparently, the Geneva headquarters has not sanctioned allowance money for the refugees in India.


Due to delay of the payment from UNHCR, some landlords have evicted the refugees from their houses as the refugees cannot pay house rent on due time. Some are forcing the refugees to pay rent immediately by cutting water or electricity supplies. “We know of at least a hundred families of them”, said a community leader, who along with others are now desperately seeking financial and material assistance from non-governmental organizations and individuals in Delhi.


“Some families are starving, as they have no means of support whatsoever. The children studying in schools cannot pay their tuition fees”, he continues. An emergency relief committee was formed on last Friday in a meeting of Burma refugee community held in New Delhi to seek ad hoc financial and food supplies for the refugees.


Since September 1988, when the military came to power by a coup in Burma, hundreds of Burmese nationals, mostly students and youth pro-democracy activists, have crossed the border to India. A large number of Burmese refugees, mostly ethnic Chin, have also taken shelter in India due to human rights abuses, political and economic hardship under the military regime. Approximately between 40,000 to 50,000 Chin nationals are currently staying in India’s northeastern state Mizoram. In recent weeks, the Mizoram government launched a crackdown on these Burma nationals in the state and about one thousand Chin asylum-seekers are being detained in various jails in Mizoram. They face possible forced return to Burma after their release from prison.


Of the number 800 Burma nationals currently staying in Delhi, about 600 are recognized and protected refugees of the UNHCR in India. There are about one hundred and fifty families with a hundred children (mostly between the age of 2 to 7 years). There are about one hundred refugees whose application for refugee status are either rejected or pending with the UNHCR office and thus they are not entitled to UNHCR’s any humanitarian assistance. Even UNHCR-recognized refugees experience hardship and problems in their daily life due to inadequate financial assistance provided by UNHCR.


In July this year, UNHCR office in Delhi informed the refugees that the monthly allowance from July this year would be at Rupees 1,400 (about US $ 31) per person, in stead of 1,550 paid in previous months. The worst yet come in this month, as UNHCR cannot pay the allowance money to the refugees till date.


Source: Mizzima News Group





PUBLIC AI Index: ASA 20/40/00 UA 234/00 Possible forcible return of asylum-seekers 8 August 2000


INDIA Ethnic Chin from Myanmar


Scores of ethnic Chin are reported to have been forcibly returned to Myanmar from the northeastern Indian state of Mizoram, and handed over to the Myanmar armed forces. Hundreds more are reportedly detained and facing deportation. Amnesty International is concerned that many of those who have been detained may have well-founded fears of persecution and possibly torture in Myanmar, and are not able to claim asylum in India.


Up to 50,000 ethnic Chin from Myanmar are estimated to be living in Mizoram, which borders on Myanmar. At least 87 were reportedly forcibly returned on 4 August, and several hundred more were reportedly detained in the past few days. The authorities claim the Chin are illegal immigrants and are working illegally.


Among those detained are reported to be relatives of a member of the political opposition in Myanmar. Amnesty International believes that they would be at risk of torture and imprisonment if they were deported.


There are fears that there will be further arrests and deportations, and many Chin have reportedly gone into hiding.


Those detained are reportedly held in several jails and police posts in the state, under the Foreigners Act (see below), which makes no provision for refugees and does not allow those detained to seek asylum.




Ethnic minorities commonly face torture and ill-treatment in Myanmar. The Chin, who are mainly Christian, have also been subjected to massive forcible relocation, forced labour and religious persecution by the mostly Buddhist Myanmar authorities. Churches have been destroyed, pastors have been arrested and harassed, and thousands of Chin civilians have been forced off their ancestral lands by the Myanmar army. The Chin live in both the Chin State of western Myanmar, which borders on India and Bangladesh, and the Sagaing Division of Myanmar.


Thousands of Chin civilians have been forced to work on infrastructure projects, including roads and dams. There is a small armed opposition group in conflict with the central Myanmar authorities, the Chin National Front.


Although India is not a signatory to the 1951 UN Refugee Convention, it is a member of the UNHCR’s Executive Committee, and hosts several large refugee populations, including Tibetans, Sri Lankans and Afghans. Any refugee who enters India without authorization is considered an illegal immigrant, and can face up to five years’ imprisonment and a fine under the Foreigners Act of 1946. Moreover, India denies the UNHCR access to most refugees, including those in Mizoram, and does not permit outside scrutiny of the situation facing some refugees.


India is bound by the principle of non-refoulement, which obliges states not to forcibly return anyone to a country where they would risk serious human rights violations. The principle of non-refoulement is binding on all states, and is absolute under Article 3 of the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, which India signed in October 1997.


RECOMMENDED ACTION: Please send telegrams/telexes/faxes/express/airmail letters in English or your own language:


– expressing grave concern at reports that scores of ethnic Chin have recently been deported from Mizoram to Myanmar;


– calling on the authorities to immediately halt any program of deportation and abide by the fundamental principle of non-refoulement, which is considered to be a rule of customary international law;


– calling on the authorities to immediately put in place a fair and satisfactory asylum determination system which will allow those who have a well-founded fear of persecution to claim asylum;


– urging the authorities to ensure the safety and protection of all ethnic Chin from Myanmar in Mizoram;


– urging the Indian government to allow the UNHCR access to Mizoram.




Pu Zoramthang Chief Minister of Mizoram Aizawl


Mr George Ferndandes Defence Minister Ministry of Defence


COPIES TO: Mr Lal Krishna Advani Minister of Home Affairs


and to diplomatic representatives of India accredited to your country.


PLEASE SEND APPEALS IMMEDIATELY. Check with the International Secretariat, or your section office, if sending appeals after 19 September 2000.





For immediate release

August 17, 2000

For more information contact: Sidney Jones (NY) +1 212 216 1228 (w); +1 718 788 2899 (h)


Gary Risser (DC) +1 202 612 4342 (w); +1 301 949 1966 (h)


(New York, August 17, 2000) — Human Rights Watch today called on India to halt expulsions of ethnic Chin refugees to Burma where many could face persecution from the Burmese military. The Chin are an ethnic and religious minority in north-western Burma.


According to local sources, police in the Northeastern Indian state of Mizoram are preparing to deport another group of Chin this Friday. Last week authorities turned over more than one hundred Chin to the Burmese army along the border and have detained more than 1,000 others pending deportation. The Indian government claims the Chin are illegal immigrants.


“Any wholesale deportation to Burma without safeguards for protecting genuine refugees is unacceptable,” said Sidney Jones, Asia director of Human Rights Watch. “The general level of repression in Burma should be enough to justify those safeguards. But when the deportees belong to an ethnic minority, and the Burmese army is conducting counterinsurgency operations near their homes, protection becomes absolutely vital.”


The Indian government should give the office of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees immediate access to the detainees, she said, so that anyone with a valid fear of persecution could make a formal claim for refugee status.


At the moment, not only is there no presence of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees, but there is even concern that local officials may be ignoring the applicable law, which requires that any potential deportee have a judicial hearing.


Mizoram State borders on Burma’s Chin State, where the Chin National Front (CNF) has been fighting the Burmese government since 1988. Anyone the government suspects of having links to the rebels can face arbitrary arrest, detention, and, at times, torture. Villagers are subject to forced labor, forced portering, and religious persecution, as many of the Chin are Christians.


Though some ethnic minority Chin have been in India since the 1960s, most of the Chin refugees now in India fled there to escape abuses after 1988, when the Burmese government violently cracked down on the pro-democracy movement. An estimated 40,000 to 50,000 Chin now live in Mizoram alone. Since the Chin have no access to relief assistance, they are forced to survive by seeking work, particularly around Mizoram’s capital, Aizawl. Work as migrant laborers exposes Chin refugees to arrest and expulsion for illegal entry.


The Indian government has not signed the 1951 U.N. Convention relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, nor does it have any domestic refugee law. The Foreigners Act, under which the Chin are being expelled, makes no distinction between illegal immigrants and refugees. The Indian government is, however, bound by the international principle of non-refoulement which prohibits the forcible return of refugees to situations in which they would be subject to persecution and where their lives and freedom could be threatened.


USCR Deeply Concerned Over Fate of Burmese Chin Deported and Detained by India


The U.S. Committee for Refugees (USCR) has told the government of India that it is deeply concerned regarding the fate of several hundred ethnic Chin Burmese refugees whom the Indian authorities have detained. In a letter dated August 3, USCR senior policy analyst Hiram A. Ruiz said, “Many of these persons fled to India because they feared persecution in Burma…. Deporting members of this group to Burma could constitute refoulement¯forced return of refugees. Such an action would be contrary to international law and would warrant strong international condemnation.”


Because they fled Burma for reasons similar to those of Burmese who are considered refugees in other countries, USCR considers the estimated 40,000 Burmese Chin who have fled to Northeast India over the past decade to be refugees. However, the Indian government does not recognize them as refugees. Neither does it permit the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to visit Mizoram in order to ascertain whether the Chin would fall under its mandate. In the past, UNHCR has said that the Chin in Mizoram might qualify as refugees.


According to the Chin Freedom Coalition, the Indian authorities are detaining some of the Chin whom they recently arrested in prisons in Aizwal and Tanhril, and at police posts in Babutlang, Vaiva, Kulikawn, and Lungmual. Thousands of other Chin Burmese living in Mizoram are now fearful of being arrested and forcibly returned to Burma. Some are said to be in hiding. The Chin, who are largely Christian, are among the many ethnic minorities who have suffered discrimination under successive Burmese governments and persecution by the present Burmese regime. Although India is not a signatory to the 1951 UN Refugee Convention, it is a member of UNHCR’s Executive Committee, and generously hosts several large refugee populations, including Tibetans, Sri Lankans, and Afghans. USCR urged the Indian authorities to extend their hospitality to Burmese refugees living in Mizoram.


Action: What you can do!

1. Please write to Indian and Mizoram governments:

– expressing grave concern at reports that scores of ethnic Chin have recently been deported from Mizoram to Myanmar;

– calling on the authorities to immediately halt any program of deportation and abide by the fundamental principle of non-refoulement, which is considered to be a rule of customary international law;

– calling on the authorities to immediately put in place a fair and satisfactory asylum determination system which will allow those who have a well-founded fear of persecution to claim asylum;

– urging the authorities to ensure the safety and protection of all ethnic Chin from Burma ( Myanmar ) in Mizoram;

– urging the Indian government to allow the UNHCR access to Mizoram


Pu Zoramthang

Chief Minister of Mizoram




Faxes: + 91 389 32245

Salutation: Dear Chief Minister


Pu Tawnluaia

Home Minister

Government of Mizoram


Fax: + 91 389 32245

Salutation: Dear Minister


Mr George Fernandes

Defence Minister

Ministry of Defence

New Delhi


Faxes: + 91 11 379 3397

Salutation: Dear Minister


Mr Lal Krishna Advani

Minister of Home Affairs

Ministry of Home Affairs

North Block

New Delhi 110 001


Faxes: + 91 11 301 5750

Salutation: Dear Minister



2. Write to your MP, Congressman and Senator expressing your concern at recent reports of the persecution of the Chin people in Burma. Urge him/her to support the Committee Representing the Peoples’ Parliament established under Aung San Suu Kyi’s leadership. This would have the effect of undermining the SPDC military junta which is responsible for these violations of human rights.





(Rev. Dr. Chum Awi)

1. CHIN STATE It is situates in the North-Western part of Burma. The State borders with Bangladesh and India in the West. It is full of mountains and deep valleys. These make communication difficult. People speak various dialects.


The population is estimated 400000. People are dependent on slash and burn system of agriculture. This system make the soil barren year after year.


2. CHRISTIANITY The first missionaries to Eastern Chinland were Rev. and Mrs. Arthur Carson. They founded mission station in Haka in 1899 AD. This town is now the present capital town of the State. Mr. Carson, invented Roman alphabets for Chin literature in 1907. He planned to work on development in the areas of agriculture, literature, medicine, and basic education. The people were so unfor-tunate because he died of appendicitis in 1908.


These American Baptist missionaries were followed by Dr. East and his wife (1902). They were medical missionaries. Another medical missionary couple were Dr. & Mrs. J.G. Woodin. They came to Haka in 1910 and didn’t work long.


Rev. & Mrs. Chester Strait arrived in Haka in 1925. He established Bible school in Haka. He finished translation of the New Testament and published in 1940.


Rev. & Mrs. robert R.G. Johnson arrived in Haka in 1946. They began to translate Old Testament. They started to build a stone Church building in Haka. The Revolutionary Government of Burma which dethroned parliamentary democracy government in 1962 required them to go home in 1966. They were the last missionary couple to the Chins.


3. ZOMI (CHIN) BAPTIST CONVENTION In 1953 Baptist Chins organized them- selves as Zomi (Chin) Baptist Convention. The total population of Baptists in Chin State is estimated 100000 baptized and another 100000 non-baptized members. There are around 1000 local small Churches in the villages.


Because of dialects and regional feelings, the Convention is comprised of 25 associations. 1. Haka Baptist Association 2. Falam Baptist Association 3. Tedim Baptist Association 4. Thantlang Association of Baptist Churches 5. Kale Valley Baptist Association 6. Matu Baptist Association 7. Matu Association of Baptist Cchurches 8. Senthang Baptist Association 9. Lautu Baptist Association 10. Kabaw Valley Thado Baptist Association 11. Zotung Baptist Association 12. Maram Baptist Association 13. Zophei Baptist Association 14. Tonzang baptist Association 15. Siyin Region baptist Association 16. Zo Baptist Association 17. Kuki Chin Baptist Association 18. Tamu Valley Baptist Association 19. Paletwa Baptist Association 20. Gangaw Baptist Association 21. Kanpetlet Baptist Association 22. Mindat Township Baptist Association 23. Chin Baptist Association 24. Kale Zomi Baptist Association 25. Lairawn Baptist Association


4. OTHER MISSION & PARA-CHURCHES There are mission Churches and para- churches which are established in the Chin society today. These include: 1. Roman Catholic Mission Churches 2. Presbyterian Churches 3. Methodist Churches 4. Gospel Baptist Churches 5. Fundamental Baptist Churches 6. Evangelical Baptist Churches 7. Evangelical Presbyterian Churches 8. United Reform Churches 9. Evangelical Free Church of Burma 10. Church of Jesus Christ 11. Church of God 12. Church on the Rock 13. Assemblies of God 14. Full Gospel Churches 15. United Pentecostal Churches 16. Christian Mission Alliance 17. Four Square Gospel Church 18. Christian Church of Myanmar 19. Seventh Day Baptist Church 20. Seventh Day Adventist Churches 21. Independent Church of Burma 22. Thangzakam baptist Churches


Note: These small Churches are part of Christian growth in the State.


5. FUTURE OF CHRISTIANITY The present military government of Burma is implementing its unwritten high policy in the country. This high policy is summed up in three words: Amyo, Batha, Thathana. It can be translated as:



“Only one race = Burmese


Only one language = Burmans


Only one religion = Buddhism”

Because of this policy Chin language is prohibited to be taught in public schools. Christianity is suppressed in many ways. Pagodas are constructed on mountains of Chin State with state government funds while churches are destroyed indirectly.


The future of the Churches in Chin State is very unstable at this point of time. It is hoped and prayed that believers in the State continue keeping their faith in the midst of torturings and persecutings.


( Rev. Dr. Chum Awi is former principal of Zomi Theological College ( ZTC ), and General Secretary of Zomi ( Chin ) Baptist Convention. He was township law officer at Haka before he served as ZTC principal )





Ecological System and Renewable Energy in Chin State Provided by: Chin Research and Development Society


A Brief Review of The Ecological Destruction and the Feasibility of Renewable Energy in Chin State


Provision of an energy supply in the Inner Chin State, Burma has been difficult for a long time, and has seriously obstructed economic and social development. The state has not been invested large amount of financial and materials resources here, only a very limited about 5% to 10 % of the population in this area accessed to electricity. Insignificant numbers of farmers, villagers and households have been connected to the electricity grid or to local small hydro generating stations. To extend the grid, the construction of high and low voltage lines alone would require large amount of investment that only the international NGO will best meet these requirements as the local or the State Government has no other alternative resources for implementation. Not only the one-time cost is high, but also the energy usage at any given location is low that the economy benefits are also very low.


Because of a shortage of fuel, energy, and electricity the farmers here still rely mainly on firewood, straw for their daily use – this has resulted in deforestation, destruction of the reserved forest for rain, soil erosion and draught that are affecting a larger area every year.


The second cause of the deforestation is done by Orchid hunting in the forest of Chin State, because of the price of the wild orchid per kilogram is as high as 4000 Kyats to 6000 ks ( Kyat is Burmese currency ) per kilogram which is an equivalent salary of a government servant per month. People cut every huge tree that bears Orchid flowers. The jungle of the reserve forest in Chin State now has been totally wipes out.


There are two main orchids which the Orchid hunters are mainly interested in:


(a )small white colour flowers with the shape of pearls , a rather short plant, which is highly demanded in China and can cost up to 5000 ks per kilogram,


(b) the second one has a delicate shape spider like structure flowers which has exotic beauty in nature, and can cost up to 6000 ks per kilogram.


The Chinese, Indians and Thais have the technique to do tissue culture that include mass production from a single plant to over a million plants in a- three -year period. Orchid cultivation became one of the sources of their main national income, rolling millions and millions of dollars in to their countries each year.


The third cause of deforestation would be shifting cultivation and the usage of slash-and-burn method of cultivation that devastated the ecological system of Chin State. The fourth cause of deforestation is burning forest that destroyed natural habitats for the animals and ecological system as a whole, to the extent that the fire occasionally resulted to the destruction of houses in the villages.


To depend on conventional energy to solve the energy problem of the vast, extremely dispersed areas is fraught with difficulties. To do so even within a relatively long period of time will be next to impossible. However, Chin State has abundant wind and solar energy resources. The region’s wind energy reserves are very large and still being unused. In the region as a whole, average wind speed would be around 5 meters per second, and 75% of the region has utilizable wind resources. Inner Chin State also has a rich solar resource that 3000 hrs to 4000 hrs of sunshine available per year. Learning how to make use of these favorable resources that nature has bestow upon humanity, and turn them into a wellspring and motive force to accelerate economic and social development, is the objective towards which we have been striving.


The road to renewable To solve the energy problem of the areas, to develop the regional economy and protect the fragile ecological environment, Chin State has traveled a difficult road toward the development and utilization of new energy sources.


Between 1950 and 1970 the initial steps were taken towards new energy development. The first steps were made towards solving the scientific questions involved in producing equipment for converting wind energy into mechanical and electrical energy, and devices for utilizing solar electricity and solar heat. Through medium-scale testing arranged by the local and the region, initial steps were taken to explore the feasibility of using wind power to address energy needs in this area. These steps established a firm foundation for the development and use of new energy in Chin State.


From 1980 to 1990, new energy development and utilization moved into the key stage of organized and planned development. By late 1990 it was possible to buy Tata Company made solar panel from India that the relatively wealthy people of Chin State have access in purchasing, for their family electricity consumption. We need a reliable group of Local NGO with the task of supervising and co-ordinating the issues of renewable energy at a regional level. All major issues in new energy development are to be studied, planned organized and co-ordinated between NGO organizer for rural development. This will vigorously ensured the healthy development of the region’s energy work.


New energy development guidlines are to establish with, policies and specific measures well suited to the region’s conditions. That specified :-


The primary objective of new energy development and utilization had to be the solution of the energy problems of rural and remote areas, and that the development of small-scale wind generators, solar cells, and balance of system products for stand-alone applications is a top priority.


Reliable to use, convenience to maintain, and affordable to local usage should be the basic principle of the new product.


Small-scale products and energy use for daily life should be the main focus, and the needs of production and daily life should be integrated.


Local people should be in charge, with the State and NGO providing appropriate support.


Local NGO and expertise are to be organized to tackle the key technical problems. Simultaneously, with the region’s resources in mind, provisional standards are formulated for the technical parameters of small wind generators, in order to push them as fast as possible toward technical reliability and practicality of use.



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